An effective and close cooperation between both the public and private sector is key to achieving an efficient and sustainable national animal health network. Private fee-for-service animal health care provided by the VFUs comprises the day-to-day veterinary services for local livestock owners. These services include diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases, vaccination to prevent contagious diseases, and advice on animal health and production. Public tasks by the Afghan government, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL), focus on disease surveillance and control, regulation of the importation, quality control of vaccines and medicines, and policy making. This system of a public-private animal health care and production service is still in development. DCA is actively working together with MAIL and other stakeholders to create the conditions for a well-functioning public-private partnership.